Beauty of sky

Solar & lunar eclipses

Solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth. Moon can block the Sun fully or partially. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is fully obscured by the Moon. This situation happens in the narrow path on the Earth's surface unlike to partial solar eclipse, which is possible to observe on much wider part of the Globe. The Moon's diameter is around 400x shorter than Sun's however Moon is around 400x closer than Sun hence the total solar eclipse may be observed in one spot of the Globe.

Lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth and Moon are aligned. We can observe both total and partial (sometimes prenumbral) lunar eclipses from entire hemisphere unilike to solar eclipses which occurs on some part of the hemisphere only. The Eart's umbra is around 3x bigger than Moon's disk, so the total lunar eclipses are seen more often. Remember, that lunar eclipses occurs rarely than solar eclipses. Basically during the 3 solar eclipses period we can witness 2 lunar eclipses.

This project logistically is the most difficult one, which I am involved. I would like to share my solid observations the solar and lunar eclipses. Every oservation includes photo details, location details and date. I always base my observations on the paper calculations and local circumstances. I use the open source astronomical software. This project mainly consist observations, but may be helpful in the atmosphere luminance research and how to capture it properly. For further purposes it may be use to analyze the intensity of light in the Earth's atmosphere.

All people are usual focused on the main phenomena like solar corona or Moon's disk. It happens only rarely, that someone cares about wide light phenomena. This is the thing, which I am keen interested in. I use the local web cameras to image the solar eclipse. I analyze the eclipse footages from the Youtube also. I would like to create the solar & lunar eclipse chart at the end of my project. It would be useful to set up the observation sights in the touristic areas. To create this stuff I divided my own project the following portions:
- the colour of sky and light density change,
- the colour of sky and light density change during the twilight (solar eclipse below the horizon),
- the atmosphere circumstances during the total solar eclipse,
- the umbra position models,
- the umbra position models in the Earth's atmosphere (solar eclipse below the horizon),
- the light density measurement during the partiality and totality using photometer (app),
- the brightness of sky measurement during the partial and total partial eclipse,
- the moonlight density change,
- the intensity of sunlight on the particular parts of the Moon's globe.

Due to this project I would like to carry out some amateur observations (part of this project) as follows:
- The solar conditions on Mars - this observation will be aimed at sunlight density and temperature measurements during the partial solar eclipse. I could execute this measurements when obscuration is around 60%, then the solar luminance is quite the same like on the Mar's surface. I would cover both sunlit areas and shady areas (while inside buildings, etc.) It would refer to the light density scale, which determines the ranges of light density for a various activities in different conditions. The temperature measurement would cover the sunlight and air temperature.
- Solar eclipse from the air - observations based on analyzing of the flight photos and footages uploaded on the Youtube server. I would focus on the light scattering in the Earth's atmosphere.

The biggest observation project especially for the European astronomers will be solar eclipses during the 2026-30 period. During this time we will be able to see 4 solar eclipses (2 annular and 2 total), while second longest total solar eclipse in the XXI century also! However the longest moment will last on the Sahara desert (6m22s), but path of totality will proceed through a very south patch of the Iberian Penninsula with the Gibraltar Strait. This eclipse can be somewhat the longest total eclipse in this century, because the maximum phase of 22.07.2009 TSE (6m31s)occured above sea and 5m39s on mainland (Shanghaj area). It's good to interest those phenomenas right now.